Niels Bohr Biography, Facts, Childhood, Family, Life, Wiki, Age, Work

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  • The birthday of the day is September 7, 1885
  • Died At Age: 77
  • Sun Sign: Libra
  • Also known as: Niels Bohr, Henrik David.
  • Born in: Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Famous as: Nobel Prize Winning Physicist
  • Ex-Spouse/Part-Time Margrethe Norlund
  • Father: Christian Bohr
  • mother: Ellen Adler Bohr
  • The siblings are: Harald Bohr, Jennifer Bohr
  • children: Aage Bohr, Erik Bohr, Ernest Bohr, Hans Henrik Bohr
  • Died on: November 18, 1962
  • place of death: Copenhagen, Denmark
  • City: Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Persona: INFJ
  • Education: University of Copenhagen (1911), University of Copenhagen (1909), Gammelholm Grammar School (1903), University of Copenhagen
  • Awards: 1922 – Nobel Prize in Physics
    1926 — Franklin Medal
    1947 to Order of the Elephant
  • 1957 — Atoms For Peace Award
    1938- Copley Medal
    2011 – Sonning Prize
    – Matteucci Medal
    – Max Planck medal
    Hughes Medal Hughes Medal

who is Niels Bohr?

Niels Bohr is a Noble Prize winning Danish physicist who pioneered work in quantum theory as well as helping to understand the structure of atoms. Born into a highly influential and well-educated family Bohr is considered to be one of the top scientists in during the twentieth century. When he earned his doctorate in Physics, he performed extensive research alongside Ernest Rutherford on the atomic structures. He developed the first convincing explanation of important lines in the hydrogen spectrum. His theories of the atom evolved into the basis of the modern nuclear physical science. His contribution to understanding the atomic structure as well as quantum mechanics was recognized with his Nobel Prize in Physics. In addition He also developed the principle of complementarity that asserts that objects can have dual natures, like an electron, which functions as particles and waves however we only observe one side at the same time. In World War II He managed to avoid being detained by German police, and later moved into America. United States where he acted as a key member in the group of scientists in the Manhattan Project. He was also a renowned humanitarian , and following the war was over, he spent the remainder of his time advocating the non-violent use of nuclear power.

Childhood and Early Life

Born on the 7th of October 7th, 1885 in Copenhagen, Denmark, to Christian Bohr, a physiology professor and his wife Ellen Adler Bohr, daughter of an affluent Danish Jewish family. He had an older brother, Jenny, and a younger brother named Harald.

He began his education at the Gammelholm Latin School, which it joined when he was just seven years old. In 1903, he enrolled at the Copenhagen University where his major was physics. He was taught by the professor Christian Christiansen.

The year 1909 was the time he received an master’s degree in physics and then went on to earn the PhD on physics the year 1911 at the University of Copenhagen. The topic of his doctoral dissertation was an electron-based theory for metals.

Career

He was in 1911 when he traveled to England and had a meeting with J. J. Thompson of the Cavendish Laboratory at the Cambridge University. He conducted a few experiments on cathode radiation, however, he was not able to convince Thomson. Then, Ernest Rutherford invited him to conduct postdoctoral research in England on the atomic structure.

The year 1913 was the time that Bohr’s work on the structure of atoms was published and was the basis for the well-known “old quantum theory”.

From 1914 until 1916, the lecturer was employed of Physics from 1914 to 1916 at The Victoria University of Manchester, UK.

The year 1916 was the time he was an instructor of theoretical Physics within the University of Copenhagen, a position he held for nearly 46 years. He established the ‘Institute for Theoretical Physics at Copenhagen University in 1920 and also served as its director until 1962.

In World War II during World War II, He fled Denmark in the course of World War II to America in the United States, where he was employed in the Manhattan Project. After the war, he was an outspoken advocate against nuclear weapons and in favor of the peaceful use of nuclear energy.

In 1938, until the time of his demise, He was chairman at the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and was in charge of the initial phase of the Commission’s plan to make peaceful use of nuclear energy.

In 1954, he was very influential in the creation in 1954 of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).

Major Works

He developed an atomic model which he proposed that electrons move through fixed orbits around nucleus of the atom, and explained the mechanism by which electrons emit or absorb energy. He proposed the notion that electrons could fall from a high-energy orbit to a lower orbit and, as a result, emit an energy quantum that is discrete.

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He is also credited with the concept of ‘the complementarity principle’ that defined that the particles and wave aspects of nature are mutually exclusive and therefore cannot be experienced in tandem. The principle states that things can be analyzed separately by examining their contradictory characteristics for example, such as acting as waves or streams of particles.

Awards and Achievements

The year 1921 was the time he was awarded the famous ‘Hughes Medal’ awarded by the Royal Society of London.

He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1922. won the “Noble Prize in Physics as a tribute “for his contributions to studying Atomic structure as well as of the radiation that emanates through them”.

The year 1923 was the time he received the ‘Matteucci Award’ by the Italian Society of Science’.

The year 1926 was the time he was awarded the ‘Franklin Medal’ from his organization, the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia.

He was awarded the medal in 1930. was awarded the prestigious ‘Max Planck Medal in recognition of his outstanding achievements in the field of theoretical Physics.

The year was 1938 when he was awarded the “Copley Medal” in 1938 from the Royal Society of London in honor of his outstanding research in “development of the quantum theory of the atomic structure”.

He was awarded the award in 1957. received the ‘United States Atoms For Peace Prize’. In the same year, he was also awarded the “Sonning’s Prize” awarded by the University of Copenhagen.

Personal Life & Legacy

The first day of August 1912 the couple got married to Margrethe Norlund, the sister of mathematical genius Niels Erik Norlund. The couple had six sons, among them two of them died due to unfortunate circumstances.

He passed away on November 18 1962, at his residence at Carlsberg, Copenhagen, Denmark following an accident. The body was cremated and his ashes were interred in the family graveyard in the Assistens Cemetery in the Norrebro section of Copenhagen.

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