Education is the major aspect of any modern society. Education gives us knowledge and awareness and also it keeps us away from superstitious beliefs. Education directs the person to move in right path at all the times in life. It also increases the ‘ethical values of the person and hence helps to identify the difference between good and bad. The knowledge which is supposed to guide students to success might be abused or misused without value education.
Before defining value education, we should know about the values. Values are principles, fundamental convictions and ideals, standards of life which act as a general guide to behaviour or as a reference point in decision-making. Values are virtues, ideals and qualities on which actions and beliefs are based. It is guiding principle of life which are conducive to all value development.
Value education is the aggregate of all the process by means of which a person develops abilities, attitudes and other forms of behaviour of the positive values in the societies in which he lives. In the words of John Dewey, “Value education means primarily to prize, to esteem to appraise, holding it dear and also the act of passing judgement upon the nature and amount of its value as compared with something else”
The very purpose and main function of education is the development of an all round and well-balanced personality of students so that children can make our nation more democratic, cohesive, socially responsible, culturally rich and intellectually competitive. But, now a days, more emphasis is unduly laid on knowledge-based and information-oriented education. As a result, the other aspect of their personality like physical, emotional, social and spiritual are not properly developed in providing for the growth of attitudes, habits, values, skills and interest among the pupils. It is here the value education comes in handy.
Importance of Value Education
• It gives the students a progressive way for their future and also helps them to know the real purpose of their life.
• Value education helps students to become responsive and practical. . This helps them to better recognise the perception of life and lead a positive life as a responsible resident
• It also helps in developing a strong relationship with family and friends.
• It changes the personality and character of the students.
• Value education is the only means which can give the young generation a right direction. Hence value education is needed.
• In modern times, people are extremely focused in the pursuit of their own success and self interest. In this process human being has been changed into robots i.e. without feelings and values. Their activities become heartless and lack values. Therefore, there is need of value education,
• Swami Vivekanand pin pointed value education as the total upliftment of society. Martin Luther King Jr said that the function of education is to teach one to think intensively and critically.
• Value education forms a positive opinion about life in the student’s mind.
• Value education is teaching and learning about the ideals that society considers important
Objectives of Value Education
The following objectives of value education are identified :
• Full development of child’s personality in its physical, mental, emotional and spiritual aspects.
• Inculcation of good manners and responsibility and cooperative citizenship. Developing respect for individual and society.
•Developing a democratic way of thinking and living, .
•Developing tolerance towards and understanding of different religious faith.
•Developing a sense of human brotherhood at social, national and international levels.
•Enabling children to make moral decision on the basis of sound moral principles.
Types of Value
Following are some of the types of values which are required in education
• Personal Values Personal values are those we learn for ourselves and which constitute a critical part of our values and are apparent in attitudes, beliefs, and actions. Personal values include honesty, responsibility, loyalty etc.
• Social Values Social values are those which puts the rights of wider groups of people first. This may include equality, justice, liberty, freedom and national pride. These are often instilled into people when people are young.
• Political Values Political values are ideological beliefs about the best way to govern a country or organisation, e. g. through welfare democracy and civic responsibility
• Economic Values Economic values are those that are centred around money and may include beliefs around ownership of property, contributing to the common good.
Religious Values Religious values are spiritual in nature and include beliefs in how we should live.
Factors Influencing the Learning of Values
Hogan believes that moral values are determined by five factors
• Socialisation It is becoming aware of society as a child and parent’s rules of conduct for being good.
• Moral Judgement It is learning to think reasonably about our own ethics and deliberately deciding on our own moral standards.
• Moral Feelings It is the internalisation of our moral beliefs to the degree that we feel shame and guilt when we do something wrong.
•Empathy The awareness of other people’s situation, feelings and needs so that one is compelled to help those in need.
• Confidence and knowledge It is knowing the steps involved in helping others and believing that one is responsible for and capable of helping.
Value Education in India
Value education in India from the ancient times has held a prime place of importance. From the Gurukul stage, the child not only learnt skills of reading and archery but more the philosophy of life in relation with its impermanence. Hence, education in India was born of this vision to achieve one’s experience in the absolute as a spark of the divine and in this process practice of one’s duty accompanies the acquisition of knowledge.
In the modern school system, value education was termed as moral education or moral science. Britishers were absolutely neutral in their policy towards religion and value education Committee on emotional integration pointed out that the science students should have at least some background of humanities. It also opined that there should be a compulsory paper on India’s cultural heritage.
Val based education has become an integral part of the New Education Policy, 2020. NCERT has brought a book ‘Education for Values in Schools’. Universal educational values mentioned in NEP are truth, peace, non-violence, love, righteous conduct.
Value-less Education and its Effects
Intelligence with good character is the goal of true education. All scams and episodes of corruption, crime and violence in recent times in our country and the world are evidence to failure of human being, not because of lack of education, but because of value-less education. Value education never allows one to perform under pressure or greed.
Education without values tends to make man a clever devil. For example, Osama bin Laden, a dreaded terrorist was a civil engineer, whose higher education could not help him to follow the virtuous path. It is important to have an intelligent mind, but it is far more important to have a good heart. Nelson Mandela rightly said that a good head and a good heart are always a formidable combination. Gandhiji took the path of non-violence and taught us to follow value-based right path in our lives.
On analysing the activities of a soldier and a terrorist, we find that a soldier gives life for his people and his country, whereas a terrorist takes the lives of innocent people either in the name of religion or in the name of politics. Now-a-days many educated youths take the path of terrorism. This highlights that how value-less education can be used to propagate the ideas which are not only irrational but against peace, harmony and progress of human society. Values help us to differentiate between good and bad acts, while education only teaches us about the various acts.
The real education should come with moral values and character. Only the education with values can lead a man to path of virtue. Thus, our education system should adopt value based education at all levels. The value-oriented education programme should not be led only during the school level, but should be carried on further up to the level of higher education too, as it is from there that the nation’s bureaucrats, ariny personnel and future leaders emerge. Only the value-laden education can bring developments in form of eradication of poverty, generation of employment, removal of social ills, empowerment of women, problem-solving skills, decision-making power and an inclusive society.
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