In his treatise on political theory, the ancient philosopher, Kautilya, identifies 60 qualities of a good ruler. Intellectual strength, a commitment to truth, and grounding in the science of politics are among the qualities most important to a ruler. The king is the first servant of the state and should bring happiness to the people. The king’s duties and responsibilities are the same for all subjects, and the rules must be fair. No one should be above the law, according to the Kautilya, and a king must always be the last resort.
In addition, the Arthashastra describes the mechanisms of state establishment and maintenance, as well as the importance of social stability. Without a state, people are subject to the ‘law of fishes’, and without a state, a king’s responsibility is to ensure the prosperity of his people and to consolidate his power through conquest. It also states that the king must be a good example to his people, and should be respected for his wisdom.
Kautilya Arthashastra | Saptanga Theory | Indian Political Thought
The Saptanga theory is based on the notion that a state consists of seven prakritis, or elements. The prakritis are ranked according to the weight of the king’s decisions, with the ruler being the most important element and the ally the least. The king’s ministers provide the institutional framework of the territorial state. In addition, the ruling class should be free from any social injustices.
In Book 9, Kautilya argues that state capitalism and state socialism should be incorporated into the constitution. He says that the state should undertake mining operations and trade in products made from minerals. He also suggests that the state should produce a wide variety of goods, including fishery products. These two principles are crucial in a democratic society. A good government does not impose their own values on its citizens. Rather, it should be rooted in morality and the rule of law.
The doctrine of Kautilya is deeply related to politics and religion. Its central purpose is prosperity and the victory over rival neighboring states. It does not have a religious significance, however. The doctrine of state power aims to achieve both of these. A good nation is one that is free of violence. This is the aim of a political leader. This is the basis of a democracy. The concept of freedom is at the core of the philosophies he teaches.
Philosophy of Kautilya
The moral values that are essential to a society’s welfare must be rooted in the philosophy of Kautilya. He considered the adage ‘the ends justify the means’ to be an accurate guide to politics. He also understood that the adage’respect the end’ should be the ultimate goal of a government. And, he equated the two. A nation’s morals can only be judged by the results.
While Kautilya did not advocate war as a means to achieve wealth, he stressed the importance of spies in war. In fact, he believed that a society should strive to achieve prosperity through peaceful coexistence. And the more the king knows about his opponents, the better off he will be. And, in the end, the king should employ the professions of common people. They should not be enemies at all.
Conception of state power
A key element of Kautilya’s conception of state power is his recognition of power as a collection of prakritis, or elements of the state. In his view, this power is not only an instrument of war but also a means of happiness. By defining the prakritis of a country, the king should be able to use this power in a way that benefits its people.
A Kautilya’s ideal capital city would be near a body of water. A king’s ideal capital should be in the heart of the kingdom. Furthermore, he should be close to a large body of water. The concept of defence in the ancient world differs from that of the modern Westphalian state, where a king’s defence strategy depends on the strength of its armed forces and the availability of finances.
The treatise is a work of political theory, and Kautilya outlined seven qualities for a good ruler. His strategies were based on the principles of secular dharma, and had little to do with religion. He was a strong supporter of the Roman Republic, and advocated anarchism. He was a staunch opponent of the Mongols. As a result, he was able to impose his will through force.