What is Robotics, meaning, definition, types, Development of Robotics

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In present times the need for automation has increased in various industries and sectors to promote efficiency, productivity and optimization. It is this demand that exposes the usefulness of the human-robot, which is studied in the science of robotics. When there is a decrease in the youth and working population of a country, in such a situation, robot-like machines are used. It is true that western countries have adopted such technology and technology in these circumstances, which has led to more development of robotics in these countries. In a country like India, the youth population is the largest, yet the trend of automation is being adopted. Therefore, along with its advantages and possibilities, its shortcomings and challenges cannot be denied.

What is Robotics?

Generally, a machine-human or a machine-human is called a robot and the science and techniques of designing, manufacturing and applying robots are called robotics. It is such a technique, in which machines do most of the work by displacing humans. Currently, it is proving to be a boon in the fields of digging deep and dangerous mines, working in the bottom of the ocean to sending to the moon and industrial areas. The first robot was created in the year 1928 by Gaku Tensoki of Japan, who is called the father of robotics. In the year 2000, the first human robot was created by Asimov sir, which works in the advance step on innovative mobility. In the year 2017, social robot Sophia was given the citizenship of Saudi Arabia. Thus, it is the first robot in the world to be legally obtained by a country.

Similarly, Aida is the first humanoid multi-realistic robotic artist to perform all artistic activities through in-built artificial intelligence technology. In the year 2019 it displayed the artistic activities of painting at Oxford University. Thus, there are many types of robots found, which perform different types of tasks.

Types of robots

There are major types of robots found playing their roles in various fields.

1) Household Robots Robots used in domestic tasks are called domestic robots. They do the activities of household tasks in a simple and easy way as per the instructions. Such robots can be seen in hotels abroad.


2) Industrial robots These robots are self-controlled, reprogramming, and multi-purpose robots. They also do industrial activities and complex tasks efficiently and easily at a fast pace. They are skilled in performing risky tasks in industries in a better way.

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3) Humanoid robot This is the most advanced and important type of robot, because it is not only similar to humans in appearance but has two such abilities, which cannot be seen in any other robot. They are able to perform human-related activities quickly by using artificial intelligence. Thus its key components include automatic charging, automatic learning and artificial intelligence.

Intelligence is an important component in this, with the help of which humanoid robots can be given a new direction and condition. It has added a new aspect of revolution in robotics, which saves the time of human activities by making the robot efficient. At present it is proving to be a boon.

Applications/Prospects of Robotics

Currently, the utility of robotics has increased in many areas i.e. its applications are being made and many new possibilities are being discovered, which can be seen through applications.

1) The utility of robots has proved to be important in the fields of military, security and surveillance. Its use is possible in such battle areas, where information about the enemy is limited. Packbet and Talon are two such robots, which were used by the US in Iraq and Afghanistan. Seekur robots are well-known robots for security and surveillance systems.

2) It helps in high accuracy, very large scale integrity and e-waste management in the electronic form in the industrial sector. Time-saving and efficient robots work mainly in transportation tasks.

3) Robotics is being widely used in the field of health and medicine in surgery, identification of diseases etc. This makes 3-D photography possible. Alternatives like telemedicine have benefited greatly in this area. The biggest advantage of this is that less bleeding, less medicines are used and surgery recovery is possible.

3) With the development of nanotechnology, the use of nanorobots is proving to be important in eliminating oil pollution in the oceans, in the management and disposal of harmful nuclear waste in nuclear plants and in the future to solve problems like climate change and ozone hole, that is, its environmental protection. The utility in conservation is increasing.

4) The vast possibilities of robotics are being seen in space research and discoveries. It has emerged as an alternative, seen in the form of landers or rovers, which were sent with the Chandrayaan-2 mission. However, even before this, robots like ‘Path Finder’ and ‘Sojourner’ have been sent to Mars, which did the important work of roaming the surface of Mars to find out about the composition of its rocks etc. Thus it has given rise to immense possibilities.

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6) Robotics has started playing a big role in fighting complex natural and man-made disasters around the world. ‘Snake robots’ prove critical in saving hundreds of lives after a tsunami event. It helps in human protection against methane leakage in deep mines. .

The utility of robots in the current corona era

In this era of Corona epidemic, all companies big and small are using robots to follow social distancing. Robots are also being used in South Korea to take temperatures and distribute sanitizers. According to some health experts, due to Kovid-19, measures to maintain physical distance may be required by the year 2021. 14 robots were deployed in a field hospital opened at Hongshan Sports Center in Wuhan, China. An ultraviolet robot is also being used to disinfect the center in a hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa.

A human-shaped robot is undergoing trials at the Sawai Mansingh Government Hospital in India, to find out whether it can be used to deliver medicines and food to COVID-19 victims admitted there. Fortis Hospital has also made Mitra robot to test this virus in an effort to keep health workers safe from the corona epidemic and to speed up the investigation. Similarly, IITBHU has manufactured Sanitize Robot. Kerala-based startup company Asimov Robotics has also designed a three-wheeled robot, which will act as an assistant to the infected in the isolation ward.

Thus, the robot is able to perform risky tasks without human harm, revealing the possibilities of the future.

Robotics in india

The success of robots in India can be traced back to the school level, run by the Bangalore-based Center for Artificial Intelligence Research (DRDO). India’s Excellence Centers IIT Kanpur and Madras are making significant efforts in this direction.

The first indigenous robot was manufactured in India by Bharat Electronics Limited (BHEL). Robotics Society of India has been formed in the year 2011 for the purpose of automation activities and advancement of Indian robotics. India has also made robots to be helpful in various fields, giving importance to the utility of robots. India is the 18th country to make robots in the world.

India’s first banking robot is Lakshmi Robot, launched by Kumbakonam-based City Union Bank. Humanoid robot Rashmi was also made in the year 2018, although it is still in its final stages. At present, under the Gaganyaan mission, a semi-human figure robot named ‘Geomit’ has been made in January 2020, which will be sent to space in the year 2020-21. Thus, India is exploring the applications and possibilities of artificial intelligence based robots. At the same time, robotics is moving in the direction of its development regarding the possibilities of process automation.

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Prospects of Robotics Process Automation in India

1) India has started adopting this process at present. India’s manufacturing industry, automotive industry, pharmaceutical companies have adopted automation. .

2) Helps in increasing the productivity of manufacturing units by about 30-40% without cutting down on their manpower. They also train workers to perform automated processes. Fast Electric Vehicle Charging System is being developed in India with the help of automation. Fast charging four wheelers have been introduced by Tata and Mahindra, but it takes 3-7 hours to charge those four wheelers.

3) So to meet the need of the market, companies need dynamic and customized processes, which are being worked on, which will help the students to understand the technology.

Challenges of robotics

Robotics has many possibilities and applications, yet it also has some challenges, which cannot be ignored.

1) The use of robotics proves to be a challenge for the employees in the manufacturing industry sector. It is alleged by the employees that they will be thrown out of employment.

2) The term Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning is rarely used, where it is used, there are challenges of minimal knowledge. Lack of awareness is also a major challenge in India.

3) Shortage of experts and financial burden also exist as major challenges in technology institutions. It is also influenced by low knowledge of technology. This is the reason that in countries like India, it is found only in the early stages.

4) It also affects the physical functioning of human beings and is visible in the form of lack of institutional efforts.

5) Despite the present challenges automation is the need of the hour, so there is a need to implement the educational program internally amongst the employees, students etc. For this, by giving a role to innovation with awareness, people’s trust can be increased by making the relationship easy with technology.


Thus, it can be said that automation is the need of the hour, so innovation should be adopted by solving the challenges, which will inspire entrepreneurship and startups to pursue. Robotics for the way India is progressing in the technology sector