What is Artificial intelligence, Meaning, Definition, Types, History, Development of artificial intelligence

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Artificial intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence by machines. It is currently witnessing the most rapid development in the world of technology and innovation. That is why today’s era is called the era of artificial intelligence. It can solve various types of challenges and crises, but at the same time can also become a crisis for human society, due to which there is a need to be careful about its use.

It literally means artificially developed intellectual ability, it is a technique in which a computer after understanding the instructions being given in its program, preserves them and takes decisions based on that understanding future needs. and acts accordingly. Through this, it has now become possible to communicate between machines. Speech recognition, visual perception, language identification, and decision-making can be described under this technique.

The father of this technique is John McCarthy. This technology revolutionized the field of robotics. Through this, a computer system or robotic system is created, which is tried to operate on the basis of the same logic, on the basis of which the human brain works. It is fully reactive, works on limited memory, self-consciousness, and brain principle.

Development of artificial intelligence

Although John McCarthy is said to be the father of artificial intelligence, his friends Marvin Miskey, Herbert Simon, Elaine Newell, etc. also contributed significantly to this research work. The development of this technique started only in the 1950s, but its importance was recognized in the 1970s. When Japan first took the initiative and in the year 1981 started a plan called Fifth Generation. In this, the outline of a 10-year program for the development of super-computers was presented.

Britain made a project for this named ‘Elvi’. The European Union also started a program called ‘Esprit’ in this context. In the year 1983, some private organizations together established micro electronics and computer technology to develop advanced technologies applied to artificial intelligence, such as very – type 1: reactive machine This machine large scale integrated circuit.

Types of artificial intelligence

Following are the types of Artificial Intelligence

  • Type 1: Can react to situations. Such machines lack memory. It analyzes all the possible options and chooses the best one.
  • Type 2: Limited memory This is the ability to use past experiences to inform future ones. An example of this can be a self-driving car. Such cars have a decision making system.
  • Type 3: Theory of Mind This refers to understanding others. This type of artificial intelligence is not yet available.
  • Type 4: Self-Awareness This is the highest and most sophisticated level of artificial intelligence. Such systems have a sense of self. Apart from this they have awareness, consciousness etc. This type of technology is not present at present, but research is going on in this area. This technology will surely be a revolution.

Thus, it can be said that as computer science and technology are developing, new experiments are also taking place in the field of artificial intelligence.

Benefits/Applications of Artificial Intelligence

The most important use of this technology can be in the health sector. This technique can help in surgery, supervision, etc., as well as treatment, can be done in rural areas with its help. By this, the misuse of pesticides and fertilizers can be prevented. Through this, there is a possibility of revolution in the manufacturing industry.

This technique is also of great importance from the point of view of defense. For example, robots can be used in place of soldiers in war or on the border. Also, fraud detection, online fraud etc. can be controlled in the field of cyber security.

It can be important in the field of education because it can make tasks like teaching management accessible, it can help in the operation of grading system and save time.

It can easily perform risky tasks as compared to humans. There will be less chance of mistakes in its work. Complex software can be simplified to understand, thereby reducing the expenditure of resources and time.

The use of technologies such as robotics and virtual reality changes the way we work, which has seen a revolutionary change in the methods of production and manufacturing.

This technology is currently used by financial institutions and banking institutions to organize and manage data. Artificial intelligence also helps in the discovery of mineral resources. At the same time, its potential use in the energy sector increases power balance and use efficiency.

Artificial intelligence is used for automated driver autonomous tracking, delivery, and better traffic management. It can also be used in the development of smart cities and infrastructure. Presently, Chief Justice Bobde has also advocated this and said that by adopting it, justice will not be delayed.

Negative side of artificial intelligence

The adoption of artificial intelligence is more likely to increase unemployment. Especially white-collar jobs like data entry clerk, account clerk are included in this. In India too, there has been a 7% job loss in the banking sector due to the use of artificial intelligence machines by banks.

If we become too dependent on this technology, we will lose our creativity. This technology is expensive. No machine has emotion or moral value, due to which it is unable to differentiate between right and wrong very much. The same applies to this machine as well. The possibility cannot be denied that these machines can make automatic weapons and destroy the human race. Artificial intelligence increases the risk of privacy.

Status of Artificial Intelligence in India

According to the present, there are about 40-42 thousand artificial intelligence professionals working in India. Bangalore city has become a major center of artificial intelligence in India. In India, about a thousand companies are using artificial intelligence in their day-to-day operations. According to a report by NASSCOM and FICCI, Artificial Intelligence will lead to technological expansion in some of the major industrial and service sectors of India and thereby increase employment generation. Many e-commerce companies in India are using artificial intelligence to attract consumers.

Government of India’s efforts in the field of Artificial Intelligence

The Government of India is planning to promote research, training, skilling, development etc. in the field of Artificial Intelligence, Digital Manufacturing, Big Data Intelligence, Robotics, Real Time Data and Quantum Communication.

The Prime Minister of India underlined the importance of digital economy and artificial intelligence at the G-20 summit held in Osaka in June 2019. A committee has been constituted under the chairmanship of NITI Aayog Vice-Chairman Rajiv Kumar with the aim of making the benefits of artificial intelligence technology accessible to the general public.

NITI Aayog is preparing the framework for the National Artificial Intelligence Program. Along with this, NITI Aayog is starting a training program with Google Company to change the way of doing business in the country through Artificial Intelligence. The central government has also appealed to the industry for cooperation in making a model for artificial intelligence. going to do

To promote Artificial Intelligence, the Government of India has prepared a 7-point strategy, in which research and development in the context of this technology, security, attention to ethical, legal and social aspects etc. have been given a prominent place.


Artificial Intelligence is an important subject in the present era, which has both positive and negative aspects. Today it is needed for development, but we also have to be careful about it, because it can also be a threat to human society. Therefore, before adopting this technology, adequate research should be done on it, as well as emphasis should be given on training program, so that 100% benefit can be taken from it and the development of the nation can be accelerated. – “