- Birthday: November 16, 42 BC
- Died At Age: 78
- Sun Sign: Scorpio
- Also Known As: Tiberius Claudius Nero,
- Born in: Rome, Italy
- The most famous of them all: Roman Emperor
- Spouse/Ex-: Julia the Elder (m. 11 BC), Vipsania Agrippina (m. 19 BC)
- father: Tiberius Claudius Nero
- Mother: Livia Drusilla
- children: Germanicus, Julius Caesar Drusus
- Died on 16 March 37
- Place where the death occurred: Misenum
- City: Rome, Italy
Who was Tiberius?
Tiberius was an enduring Roman Emperor who was well-known for his military feats. Born into a aristocratic household and was the fourth succession to the throne, and was given a lot of responsibilities at an early age. At first, he was assigned to administrative matters, Tiberius soon developed into a formidable leader in the military. He led several successful campaigns across different parts of Europe and beyond and also held key posts in the administrative world between military operations. Despite all his successes, he wasn’t satisfied, mostly due to his discord with his former wife Vipsania. At the peak the power of Tiberius, he stunned all by resigning to Rhodes and abdicating all of his duties. However, the tragic deaths of the heirs of the throne resulted in not just Tiberius returning to Rome as well as his return to posts of power were never his prior positions. The subsequent reign was characterised by indecisiveness and indifference to his part and resulted in his being unpopular with the people. Similar to his predecessor the time, he resorted to ignoring his obligations and fled Rome and left his trusted allies Sejanus as the head of state. He was still a powerful ruler and was able to put to death Sejanus along with his associates for the charge of Treason. Tiberius may perhaps not be the most ideal Roman Emperor however he did superior to his predecessors whom plunged Rome into chaos and debauchery.
Childhood & Early Life
Tiberius was born on 16 November 42 BC, to politician Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla in Rome. They divorced at 39 BC and his mother was married to the Emperor Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus.
at the age of 12 he was in a chariot along with his dad Octavian to celebrate win of his father Octavian over Antony as well as Cleopatra in Actium.
In 24 BC under the Emperor Augustus the 17-year-old Tiberius was appointed”quaestor”, an official in the public sector in charge of financial affairs.
He served as a public prosecutor . He was successfully convicted Fannius Caepio as well as Varro Murena for high the crime of treason. He also was involved in administrative matters such as controlling grain supply and checking barracks for slaves.
In his first campaign that he commanded, he took his troops to Armenia and was crowned Tigranes as the new emperor. Tigranes was also with Augustus to liberate Roman standard from Parthians.
After his return to the west, he received the title of an ‘adjudicator’, or army commander. After that, he was sent to defeat Gauls. After that, he was sent back home to Rome around 19 BC and was appointed the post of consul.
He was assigned to fight the battles of Germany during 12 BC. He took 40000 prisoners, and later transferred the prisoners to Gaul.
It was his return back to Rome around 7 BC and was again the “Consul”. The following year, he was awarded the title of ‘tribunician’ which significantly increased his power.
Six years ago, in the year 6 BC, Tiberius and general Gaius Sentius Saturninus successfully invaded the Germanic tribe of ‘Marcomanni’ with two-pronged assaults.
2. AD, Tiberius returned from the self-imposed exile of Rhodes with no authority which he was able to exercise prior to. But he was restored to the throne after two years after the death of Augustus Gaius, his grandson. Gaius at Armenia. Augustus also took Tiberius as his son and Tiberius as his heir.
In 12 AD the emperor was given the same powers of administration as of the Emperor. A few years later, Augustus passed away and Tiberius being his son, was made the sole ruler.
Accession & Reign
The early years of Tiberius’ rule were challenging for Tiberius since Tiberius’s Senate did not believe in his authority. He attempted to present himself as a reticent and self-less ruler but this resulted in much more damage than good for his image.
He implemented a number of changes during this time. He stifled excesses, banned Egyptian and Jewish cults, banned Astrologers, quelled riots and abolished the right of sanctuary.
Following his ascendancy two northern legions from “Pannonia” and Germania started to riot. Tiberius also sent his son Germanicus which he adopted, to thwart the rebellions. Germanicus joined forces with rebels and won further victories in Germania.
Post Germanicus’ triumphs Tiberius took over Eastern provinces. In 19 AD, Germanicus passed away from poisoning under mysterious circumstances.
The following years, Tiberius vested many powers in Sejanus, the Sejanus, the long-serving Praetorian Prefect Sejanus the Prefect, while his involvement in state affairs was decreasing due to his lack of concern. He was not able to fulfill his civic duties and took to long journeys every year. Then, he left Rome and relocated towards Capri at the end of 26 AD and left Sejanus in charge as sole leader.
Sejanus’s search for strength led him join forces to take over Tiberius and brutally kill his adversaries. After becoming aware of Sejanus’s actions, Tiberius, from Capri set up Sejanus’s execution in 31 AD. He also punished anyone who was related to Sejanus.
in his will Tiberius listed both Caligula as his adopted grandson as well as Tiberius Gemellus the biological grandson of his as his heirs.
In the days before his accession Tiberius took an army into Armenia in order to transform it into the status of a Roman client-state and thus stop the threat to the frontiers. He managed to reach an agreement that saw the standard was returned back to Romans and Armenis could continue to exist as a free nation. He personally supervised the coronation of King Tigranes.
In a war that took place in Germany at the time of the 12th century BC, Tiberius came out triumphant and captured around 4000 prisoners. He released them and moved the prisoners to new territories in Gaul.
He took over Marcomanni by allying himself with General Gaius Sentius Saturninus. While Tiberius struck from the east General Gaius struck via the West. The Romans were victorious. However, before Tiberius was able to subdue Marcomanni, Tiberius was able to subjugate Marcomanni the Marcomanni, he was summoned to Germania.
Personal Life & Legacy
Tiberius was married to Vipsania Agrippina, daughter of Augustus’s closest friend general Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. Tiberius had a son from this union, ‘Drusus Julius Caesar’. Agrippa passed away around 12 BC and the next year, Augustus forced Tiberius to divorce Vipsania and to wed Agrippa’s widow, Julia.
Tiberius was very dissatisfied with his second marriage, as the love for Vipsania was still there and his discontent was further aggravated by Julia’s reckless and insipid behavior. The marriage was finally ended in 2 BC by Julia’s exile.
Following his accession as Emperor the reign of his was unstable because he was unsure. His directives were unclear and he did not enjoy the respect with the Senate and the populace. The untimely death of his son in the year 23 AD caused him to become even more distant.
In 37 AD He was diagnosed with an illness while on a trip to Campania and was admitted to Misenum for treatment. He passed away on the 16th of March 37 AD aged of 78.
The Roman King was a formidable yet hesitant ruler. He was twice forced to go on self-imposed exilesand renounced all his power to the search of solitude.