Today humans have made great progress in the field of space science. On the one hand he has reached the moon to get the secret of the secrets of the planets other than the earth, on the other hand he has launched various types of satellites with state-of-the-art technology in space for the purpose of expanding knowledge and facilities in human life. Amazing success in setting up. Today India is also included in the few countries of the world which have achieved amazing achievements in the field of space technology. Today India occupies a special place in the world in the field of space research. He has made special progress in the field of education, information and communication etc. on the strength of his various space programs.
Great scientist Dr. Vikram Sarabhai has contributed the most in the direction of space research in India. Dr. Sarabhai had started the space programs in India, as a result of which many Indian satellites were launched in space and an unprecedented revolution could be started in the field of information and communication in the country. In the year 1962, Dr. Sarabhai was entrusted with the responsibility of space research and development in India. He played a leading role in taking India into the space age, hence he is called the ‘Father of Indian Space Programme’.
Space program started in India
After the formation of the Space Research Committee under the chairmanship of Dr. Sarabhai in the year 1962 to start space research in India, in 1963, a rocket launch center was established at Thumba near Thiruvananthapuram in the state of Kerala. In the year 1969, the Space Research Committee was reconstituted and its name was changed to ‘Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). After this, a separate Space Department and Space Commission were formed by the Central Government in the year 1972 to provide a strong financial base for space research in the country.
India entered the space age on 19 April 1975 with the launch of the first Indian space satellite Aryabhata with the help of the then Soviet Union. This satellite was built for advancement in the field of X-ray, astronomy, agronomics and solar physics. On this unique achievement of Indian scientists, the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi said in the year 1976, “We are happy that India’s first satellite was named Aryabhatta. This satellite of ours is a symbol of the ability and hard work of Indian scientists.” The seventies of the twentieth century were the era of experimentation of Indian space programs. During this many satellites like Bhaskar, Rohini and Apple were launched.
Rohini is the first satellite to be put into orbit by the indigenously built launch vehicle SLV-3 in the year 1980. Out of the four satellites launched under this, three were successfully placed in orbit. In the early eighties, the Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV) project was started under the leadership of former President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam to develop the technology for launching satellites. The SLV was launched for the first time on 10 August 1979 from Sriharikota, which became the basis for the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV).
PSLV was developed to launch Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) and GSLV to launch INSAT satellites into geostationary orbits. The first generation satellites of INSAT were built with the help of foreign technology, but its second-generation satellites were developed entirely in the country by indigenous technology.
India’s Satellite System and Major Missions
The Indian National Satellite System (INSAT) is a multipurpose satellite system. It is a series of geostationary satellites launched by the Indian Space Research Organization. It is a joint venture of the Department of Space, Department of Telecommunications, India Meteorological Department, All India Radio and Doordarshan, so it provides services in many important sectors of the Indian economy. The most important of these is the telecommunications sector, which provides INSAT mobile satellite service as well as V-SAT services. Television broadcasting and redistribution have also benefited greatly from these. INSAT has enabled television access to millions of people in India through a large number of terrestrial rebroadcast transmitters installed. In addition, it is because of INSAT that it has been possible to provide specialized channels for training and developmental education. A special satellite EDUSAT (Education Through Satellite) has also been launched for the spread of education.
Along with INSAT series satellites, India has successfully launched several series satellites of IRS, METSAT, CARTOSAT, HAMSAT, IRNSS etc. since 1980 till date. Images transmitted by IRS satellites are used in various ways in the agricultural sector in India. Apart from this, these images are used to store ground water and surface water available for optimum use of water and to monitor ponds and irrigation command areas. The work of forest survey, wasteland identification and making it fertile again is also done through these pictures. Simultaneously, they are also used for exploration of minerals and prediction of potential fisheries. Today, many remote sensing satellites, (Remote Sensing Satellites) launched by India are being used at the national and international level.
The Indian launch vehicle program achieved a major milestone with the launch of the IRSP-2 satellite by the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) in October 1994. The first satellite to be placed in geostationary orbit by PSLV in the year 2002 is Kalpana-1, which is completely dedicated to meteorological information. ISRO started commercial launch of foreign satellites by PSLV rocket in the year 1999. In the year 2008, in a single mission, India achieved a great achievement in the space field by successfully placing 10 satellites in space through PSLV. Satellites in India are launched from the Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh. In the year 2008, India successfully launched Chandrayaan-1 through PSLV C-11.
Proceeding in this sequence, RESET-2, Oceansat-2, Cartosat-2B, Megha Tropics (Indo-France), Saral, other series of Cartosat etc. were launched through PSLV. The year 2013 was an important year in the development of Indian space technology because in the same year ISRO’s ambitious project ‘Mangalyaan’ was successfully launched through PSLV C-25. once
ISRO has set up the Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System like the US GPS. With this, control will be kept in the Indian Ocean. Also, it helps in service of ships, rail, air force survey etc.
The year 2019 will also always be marked as a historic year for India from the point of view of space technology, because in this year Chandrayaan-2 and Mission Shakti were carried out. In March 2019, the success of Mission Shakti completely established India as a space power.
After the success of this mission, India can now keep an eye on the enemy’s search satellite present in low Earth orbit, as well as eliminate it. Mission Shakti is a joint effort of ISRO and DRDO. With this success, India has become the fourth country in the world to achieve such a feat.
In the year 2019 itself, the Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft was successfully launched from the GSLV Mark-III from the Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh. It included the indigenous Orbiter, Lander (Vikram) and Rover (Pragyan). Although its rover from Contact was lost, but this mission was partially successful. Chandrayaan-2 was unique in itself, because it had to do a soft landing on the South Pole of the Moon for the first time.
After the success of PSLV, Indian scientists also got success in launching GSLV (Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle). GSLV can launch 2000 kg class satellites into Geostationary Transfer Orbit. Now its launch has become even easier with the help of indigenously developed cryogenic technology. On January 5, 2014, India successfully launched the first indigenously built cryogenic rocket GSLVD-5 from Sriharikota. With this, India is being counted among the few countries manufacturing launch vehicles. Communication satellites are usually launched from the GSLV launch vehicle.
In January 2020, India’s latest communication satellite GSAT-30 was launched into space from the Guiana Space Center in Kourou, French Guiana. Its tenure is 15 years. It was launched by European launch vehicle Ariane-5 VA-251. GSAT-30 satellite will provide high quality television, telecommunication and broadcasting services. It will also provide services like ATM, stock exchange, digitization, e-governance etc. In this way, it can be said that Indian space technology is continuously setting new records of success.
India’s Space Research (ISRO) and America’s Space Agency (NASA) are jointly working towards completing the NISHAR mission, 2021, so that information about natural mysteries and environmental phenomena can be obtained. Under the Bharat Solar Mission, a manned mission has been announced to send the Aditya satellite in the year 2020 for the hidden information of the Sun. India will be the first country in the world to do so. For the first time in the year 2022, ISRO has set a target of Gaganyaan. India is developing its space technology sector keeping in mind the Space India Vision, 2025. In the year 2020, under the self-reliant campaign of the Government of India, it has been decided that now the private sector will also be able to invest in the space sector. This decision will give more impetus to space technology in India.
Thus, today our country has not only advanced in the technology of satellite launch, but has also achieved success in the manufacture of launch vehicles. The success of the recent Mission Shakti and Chandrayaan-2 has made us Indians proud. All these achievements can open a huge door of revenue for India. It is expected that due to cheap and reliable technology, satellites can move to India in Asia, Europe, Africa and South America for launch.
Despite being surrounded by a developing economy and many problems associated with it, India has not only developed technology effectively but also used it for its rapid development. Not only this, today India is also providing many types of facilities related to these programs to other countries. It is expected that in the coming years, India will be more successful in achieving new achievements in the field of space research.